[Personal Review] Understanding the mechanisms of reversal of type 2 diabetes

Clinical and pathophysiological studies have shown type 2 diabetes to be a condition mainly caused by excess, yet reversible, fat accumulation in the liver and pancreas. Within the liver, excess fat worsens hepatic responsiveness to insulin, leading to increased glucose production. Within the pancreas, the β cell seems to enter a survival mode and fails to function because of the fat-induced metabolic stress. Removal of excess fat from these organs via substantial weight loss can normalise hepatic insulin responsiveness and, in the early years post-diagnosis, is associated with β-cell recovery of acute insulin secretion in many individuals, possibly by redifferentiation.

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